There are a wide variety of coffees in the world, however, the main two kinds grown are Robusta and Arabica.
The whole process starts at the seed. Robusta is comparatively easier to grow compared to Arabic because it has a higher resistance to insects. Robusta plants grow to greater heights but are cultivated at lower temperatures.
Generally, the ideal environment for growing high quality Arabic coffee is in the range of 800 and 2100 meters above sea level. Mountain growers keep their plants cool, one to two degrees, allowing for perfect conditions to produce a great coffee.
Aside from the harvesting practices, the most important difference is in the sensory characteristics of the coffee, like its aroma and flavor. Traditional Arábica coffee is sweet, mild, light, and it contains little caffeine. It's also highly aromatic. On the other hand, Robusta coffee is stronger in taste, contains more caffeine, and has a more intense body, which allows for creamier espresso.
Why are Arabica and Robusta coffee beans so different?
Does the shape matter?
Arabica beans have larger seeds than Robusta, and their seeds are exposed differently.On the other hand, the Robusta bean is much more rounded and uniform.
Does the color make a difference?
Arabica seed has a brighter color that varies from being red or green to having blue tones. The color of a Robusta coffee is always maroon, but it is a mellow one.
What are the benefits of using them?
It is much easier to prepare specialty types of coffee from Arabica varieties that have a more powerful aroma.
Contrary to this, the Robusta variety is almost always used to make instant coffee.
This is because the flavor of Robusta is much more bitter, uniform and similar, so it is frequently used to make freshly brewed coffee.
How much does it cost?
Due to the vulnerability of the Arabica coffee, but also to its notable taste and aroma qualities, it becomes a more expensive coffee compared to regular coffee low quality brands.
Likewise, the cost of producing a Robusta coffee is much more affordable, so many of the instant coffees you see at the grocery store are at an affordable price.
What about the flavor?
In terms of taste and aroma, Arabica coffee is superior whereas Robusta coffee will bring you a more bitter higher caffeine experience.